Get to know closer about Subak Bali. “Water” may be somewhat of a foreign word in the ears of many people but last few days Subak Bali start often talked about because Subak has been declared as world heritage by the UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization] in 2012. Subak Bali was a viable organization in charge of taking care of the rice field irrigation system applied in rice farming in Bali, Indonesia. Subak irrigation system is governed by an indigenous leaders who also is a farmer in Bali.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) or the world Organization in the field of education, science, culture and agricultural irrigation systems recognizes the so-called Subak Bali as part of the cultural heritage of the world. Subak Bali entered into in two categories of the cultural heritage of the world. The first category is the cultural heritage objects with Pura Subak, rice fields and the irrigation systems. The second category is not cultural heritage objects with social values and a spirit of mutual contained in water.
SUBAK BALI – MUTUAL CULTURE IN THE SYSTEM OF IRRIGATION FARMERS
The green revolution has resulted in changes in the irrigation system. The existence of the new rice varieties and new methods, farmers can plant rice as often as possible but by ignoring the needs of the other farmers. This is very much different from the Subak system, in which the needs of all farmers more prioritized. A new method on the green revolution at first produce abundant rice, but then followed with the problems and obstacles such as lack of water, pest and pollution resulting from the use of pesticides in both the ground and in the air. Eventually it was found that water or rice irrigation system traditionally it is extremely effective to resolve the issue.
Subak Bali as the irrigation system not only covers how to proper irrigation system was applied both in agriculture, fisheries, and in harnessing the water as natural resources. That makes the water it becomes even more special is the basis of his work based on the principle of Justice.
In Bali, Subak has the organization by its Chairman called “Pekaseh”. “Pekaseh” together with the farmers, ranchers, also the organizer of activities related to water are always planning and implementing good irrigation for rice paddies, fish ponds, including clean water with a very fair consultation in Bali called Sangkep [Angkep = adjacent/approaching]. Planning prepared how someday land will be given water, how much, how long, and how they are working all the planned well.
When irrigation is running good, they enjoy the adequacy of water together. On the contrary, at a time when the irrigation water is very small, they will have a limited water together. The planting schedule was implemented strictly. Time of planting was set in a certain span of time. Generally, is set forth in a span of two weeks. Farmers in violation will be subject to sanctions. To obtain the optimal use of water and evenly, excessive water can be disposed of through drainage channels available on any rice farmer-owned complex.
SUBAK BALI THE IRRIGATION SYSTEM OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE THAT PRINCIPLED JUSTICE
Subak system implement awareness and mutual culture is very high. They are very afraid of “awig-awig” (the regulations), as a form of written law that contains a set of rules to behave in the farming community. Violators “awig-awig” will incur sanctions firmly and real. Awig-awig “” human’s relationship with God (the grammar of the heaven). Also regulate human relationships (“tata pawongan”) and human relationships with the environment (“tata palemahan”), because it is rare people who dare to break them.
Subak Bali basically is a technology that is still traditional and local justice. The role of human beings in the grammar for the distribution of water for rice irrigation purposes still dominated by energy, ability and attitude of the fair from the community, led by the Regent tradition. But here lies the superiority of the system of Subak. Awareness to work socially is formed without competing for mastery over private land. Besides the customary range of stakeholders in the justice divide water rations on the farming community into a prototype of the local leadership of prioritizing fairness.
For ever the streets to Bali certainly many see cascading rice terraces layout also looks very harmonious, all it’s done is not just for beautiful views but with techniques such as this will facilitate the Subak irrigation system draining the rice fields from top to bottom. Bali subak manage mountain water, dams, rivers, “telabah” and “kekalen”. “Telabah” is a branch of the river channels while “Kekalen” is a branch of “Telabah”.
Subak Bali was studied by Clifford Geertz, while j. Stephen Lansing has attracted the attention of the public on the importance of the traditional irrigation system. He studied the temples in Bali, especially for agriculture, commonly overlooked by foreigners. In 1987 Lansing worked with farmers to develop computer models of Subak Bali irrigation system. With it he proved the effectiveness of Subak Bali as well as the importance of this system.
SUBAK BALI MANIFESTATION OF HINDUISM “TRI HITA KARANA”
Subak Bali is the manifestation of a culture of outstanding farmers. The tradition of rice paddy irrigation combines traditional values with the sacred civic system organized. Water is also a manifestation of Tri Hita Karana, the Balinese cosmological system that most of the people embraced the teachings of Hinduism. It is a real reflection of the Balinese beliefs rooted in the concept of consciousness that humans must always maintain a harmonious relationship between man and God, man and his fellow man, and between man and nature in everyday life.
Subak in Bali depict the community’s ability to translate their cosmological system was the custom in real life everyday. That be reflected in planning and land use, settlement arrangement, architecture, ceremonies and rituals, as well as art and also social organizations. The implementation of that concept also proved to be creating an amazing natural scenery and has a high cultural value.
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