Gambang Kromong is a traditional Betawi Orchestra which is a blend of Western music, gamelan with the basic tone of the Chinese style pentatonis. The Orchestra is indeed closely related to the Chinese community Were, especially the Straits Chinese and popular in the 1930s. gambang kromong on gamelan instruments consist of: gambang kayu, a set of five tones called bonang kromong, two pieces of string instruments such as the Sackbut, with resonator made of coconut shell mini called ohyan andgihyan, flute barrel fanned transverse diatonic, kenong and drum. While the Western musical instruments include guitar, violin, trumpet, and saxophone.
Gambang Kromong Orchestra – The Art Of Traditional Betawi Music China
Around the year 1937 the Orchestra-Orchestra gambang kromong reached the peak of its popularity, one of the famous Gambang Kromong Ngo Hong Lao, with players consists of all Chinese people. The instruments in the Orchestra is considered the most complete, consisting of the following tools: a gambang kayu; a set of kromong; four different Chinese rebab in size; quotation tool berdawai called Sam Hian; abangsing bamboo; two types of tools cengceng called ningnong; a pair ofPan, i.e. two pieces of wood that are dilagakan to give maat(tempo). The ladder is not used, the tone slendro gamelan barrel such as Javanese, Sundanese or Bali, but the typical mode of China, which in its original country formerly named tones Tshi Che; as heard onxylophone.
As for the so-called ” Rebab of China”, which is the biggest sized named su kong, in accordance with the barrel string strings, that mimics the tone su kongand tone. The rebab with medium size called hoo day, because the string-strings were dilaras according to the tone of hoo and the tone of the day. The rebab is the smallest named kong à hian, in accordance with the barrel mimics the sound of Chinese tones. The rebab which have a size a little bigger than kong a hian, is named tee hian, the barrel the barrel similar to kong à hian.
Sam Hian is a stringed instrument played with a guitar-like plucked way; and it plays a melody line (nuclear melody) in the Orchestra. The strings were dilaras with the name of the third tone with such notation, when the Orchestra Gambang Kromong plays typical Chinese songs called Pat fem, then used also additional inflatable in the form of shehnai, namely dai sosa and cai in (siao sona). At the time it first appeared in the Betawi, the Orchestra is simply called gambang. Since the beginning of the 20th century, began to use additional instruments, namely bonang or kromong, so this is called Gambang Kromong Orchestra. At that time almost every area in the Betawi Orchestra Xylophone Kromong possesses, even spread to the Jatinegara, Jakarta, Bekasi, Cibinong, Bogar, Sukabumi and Serang, Tangerang,.
Gambang Kromong – a blend of Indigenous Elements and Instruments of China
For Chinese people rich, tauke-tauke or babah-babah during “Batavia Centrum”, is already a customs and traditions, to enliven a variety range of parties and their feasts, by calling a bevy of gambang kromong to play. For example a wedding, it’s not perfect if not call such Orchestra into the party. Music and singing with accompaniment gambang kromong, already prevalent also felt not enough acid salts, if not accompanied by drinking wine, brandy or alcohol. Music player consists of the Betawi original or China.
In the traditional celebration of the Chinese nation, namely Cap Go Meh don’t forget jazzed up with Gambang Kromong. Gambang Kromong repertoire that is very well known by the public audience, including: Broken plates, Spines Rembang, as Temenggung wrote, Go Nio Miss, Thio Kong len, Engko si Baba,and others. Gambang kromong Additionally, usually accompanied with play-the play, such as: Si Pitung, Pitung Rob Betawi, Freeloader “, hung, Angkri and others.
As for the song Gambang Kromong was Jali-Jali. While the songs kind of Nina Lullaby pride Gambang Kromong, titled kissing ovaries. It has the original repertoire Orchestra in Chinese, referred to as the songs Phobin. Because of the song consisted mostly of indigenous women, then the Repertoire Phobin not sung, but rather played as “gamelan” (instrumental). It, not because of the compositions are indeed pieces, because many of them are really is the “Lied” for song of songs or vocals. Among the songs pobin is: Soe Say Hwee Bin (Joo Ngan Say is back), Kim Hoa Tjoen (Kim Hoa growing flowers), Pek Bouw Tan (flower Bow Tan nan white), Kong Djie Lok, Djien Museum Kwie Hwee (home return of a hero namedJin Kwie Siek).
In ancient times, the Netherlands East Indies the Orchestra-Orchestra Gambang Kromong nature of China-Indonesia it, often do not have any female vocalist-female vocalist who can sing the Po-po-bin bin-in Chinese. Because that was the song that played in an instrumental only, whereas the vast majority should be performed, since it is a melody-melody with vocals. Indonesia-language songs played by the Orchestra Gambang Kromong is a song adored flowers and figures, such as cracked plates, Spines Rembang, as Temenggung wrote, longing, Nio Co. Tion Kong si Engko In, Baba, and besides that the story about the events of the past, for example some Freeloader “, the story ofRob Pitung Betawi, story Angkri hung on. As for one of the songs of the popular Lullaby time was kissing .
Gambang Kromong as a group of musical instrument a harmonious fusion between indigenous elements with Chinese elements. Gambang Kromong Orchestra not regardless of the merits of Nie Hoe Kong, a musician and leader of the Chinese in the mid XVIII century in Jakarta. Top prakarsanyalah, incorporation of the instruments that is common in gamelan (pelog and selendro) combined with the instruments that originated in China. In the past, the Orchestra Gambang Kromong by babah-babah peranakan who lives around Tangerang, Bekasi and Jakarta. In addition to accompany songs, Gambang Kromong usual dance accompaniment used mostly for social reasons i.e. dance Cokek, dance performances and theatrical dances Lenong.
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