The History Of Borobudur Temple Indonesia
Borobudur was built around the year 800 Ad or 9th century. The temple was built by the adherents of Mahayana Buddhism during the reign of sailendra dynasty. This temple was built during the heyday of Syailendra dynasty. The founder of the temple which King Samaratungga originating from the House or dynasty of sailendra dynasty.
The possibility of this temple was built around the year 824 M and was completed around the year 900 by the 80s A.d. during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who was the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architect who helped build the temple according to a story passed down through generations named Gunadharma.
Amazing Borobudur Temple
The Borobudur itself upon the first written evidence written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of United Kingdom in Java, which gave the name of this temple. There is no written evidence that the older name of Borobudur at this temple. Only the oldest document which shows the existence of this temple is the book of Nagarakertagama, written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365. In the book were written that this temple was used as a place of Buddhist meditation.
The meaning of the name Borobudur is a monastery in the hills, which is derived from the word bara (temple or Monastery) and beduhur (hills or high place) in Sanskrit. Therefore, in accordance with the meaning of the name Borobudur, then this place is historically used as a place of Buddhist worship.
This temple for centuries is no longer used. Then due to volcanic eruptions, most of the buildings of the temple covered volcanic soils. In addition, the building also covered a wide range of trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple is starting to be forgotten at the time Islam came to Indonesia around the 15th century.
In 1814 when the United Kingdom occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles hears of the existence of a giant-sized Antiquities discovery in the village of Bumisegoro district of Magelang. Because of the large interest towards the history of Java, then Raffles immediately ordered H.C. Cornelius, an engineer Netherlands, to investigate the discovery of the location were it was a hill full of shrubs.
Cornelius was assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and get rid of the Bush that covered the hulking building. Because the building is already considering the fragile and could collapse, the Cornelius reported to Raffles the discovery includes some pictures. Due to the discovery that, Raffles awarded as the person who started the restoration of Borobudur Temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire Temple has been successfully excavated. The temple was restored during the occupation continue to Netherlands.
After Indonesia’s independence, in 1956, the Government of Indonesia requested assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage to Borobudur. Then in 1963, the official government decision out of Indonesia to do the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help of UNESCO. However, this restoration was recently really started on August 10, 1973. The process of restoration was recently completed in 1984. Since 1991, Borobudur Temple was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO or world heritage.
The Architecture Of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur Temple is located in Magelang, Central Java, about 40 km from Yogyakarta. The temple has 10 levels consisting of 6 levels is of square shape, round, circular-shaped, 3 levels and a main stupa as a peak. In each level there are a number of stupas. In total there are 72 stupas, in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is the statue of the Buddha.
Ten level depict Buddhist philosophy that a Bodhisattva should ten levels traversed to reach the perfection of the Buddha in Nirvana. This is symbolised by the perfection of the main stupa at the top level. Borobudur structure when viewed from the top of the form the structure of the mandala that illustrates Buddhist Cosmology and human way of thinking.
On all four sides, there is a gate and stairs to the level above it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life comes from the rocks. Stone later became the sand, then plants, then insects, then into wild animals and pets, and finally become a man. This process is referred to as reincarnation. The final process is to be the soul and eventually got into Nirvana.
Each stage of enlightenment in this life process is based on the philosophy of the Buddha is depicted in reliefs and statues in the Temple.
This gigantic building was just a pile of blocks of stone giants that have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone attached without the use of cement or adhesive. These rocks are only attached on pattern and stacked. The base of Borobudur Temple, measuring approximately 118 m on each side. Stones are used roughly as many as 55,000 cubic meters.
TOURIST ACTIVITY AT BOROBUDUR TEMPLE
As a tourist people can spend their time approximately 4 – 5 hours to walking around the big temple and take a good photography at any level of the temple . Many story of the history of Borobudur temple can be delivering by the local guide . Really a great story about how the process to build this biggest temple in the world. We can buy the cute souvenir around the temple too.
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